Soldering Iron Temperature


Woody Hester
 

Questions for experienced builders who have a soldering station that allows the temperature of the tip to be adjusted.

For normal kit building, what  temperature do you generally use? (Fahrenheit please).

Are there specific tasks during the build when you increase, or decrease the temperature?  If so, in just a few words, what are they?

How hard, or easy is it to damage certain components or even the board if too hot? ...and what is too hot?

If your answers are reasonably short and would be of interest to others answer on list.  Also feel free to "Elmer me" off list.  I recently burned through a trace on a board that wasn't visible.  It was a challenge to isolate and fix the problem.... so, I need to learn.  Thanks / Woody / WD9F


Dave NZ1J
 

For a long time, I used 700 degrees for just about everything.  Lately, I find myself inching up toward 800 degrees.  Also, I only use Kester rosin core solder.  I've worked at companies that have switched to 'no clean' flux and more recently lead free solder.  That's okay for them, but I'll stick with good quality rosin core solder at home.
 
Dave NZ1J

---------- Original Message ----------
From: "Woody Hester via groups.io" <fghester@...>
To: main@4SQRP.groups.io
Subject: [4SQRP] Soldering Iron Temperature
Date: Sat, 21 Nov 2020 12:11:02 -0800

Questions for experienced builders who have a soldering station that allows the temperature of the tip to be adjusted.

For normal kit building, what  temperature do you generally use? (Fahrenheit please).

Are there specific tasks during the build when you increase, or decrease the temperature?  If so, in just a few words, what are they?

How hard, or easy is it to damage certain components or even the board if too hot? ...and what is too hot?

If your answers are reasonably short and would be of interest to others answer on list.  Also feel free to "Elmer me" off list.  I recently burned through a trace on a board that wasn't visible.  It was a challenge to isolate and fix the problem.... so, I need to learn.  Thanks / Woody / WD9F



____________________________________________________________

Top News - Sponsored By Newser


Paul Goemans
 

Hi Woody!
  I use (and we used in the electronics repair shop I worked in for 41 years) 700 degrees F. If you have a 40 or 50 watt iron, it’s all you need. Don’t mess with the temperature. You won’t wreck the board or parts.
  If you are using RoHs compliant silver-bearing solder then I think 750 degrees F. Someone please check me on this?
 
Paul Goemans WA9PWP
Stoughton, WI
 

From: Woody Hester via groups.io
Sent: Saturday, November 21, 2020 2:11 PM
To: main@4SQRP.groups.io
Subject: [4SQRP] Soldering Iron Temperature
 
Questions for experienced builders who have a soldering station that allows the temperature of the tip to be adjusted.

For normal kit building, what  temperature do you generally use? (Fahrenheit please).

Are there specific tasks during the build when you increase, or decrease the temperature?  If so, in just a few words, what are they?

How hard, or easy is it to damage certain components or even the board if too hot? ...and what is too hot?

If your answers are reasonably short and would be of interest to others answer on list.  Also feel free to "Elmer me" off list.  I recently burned through a trace on a board that wasn't visible.  It was a challenge to isolate and fix the problem.... so, I need to learn.  Thanks / Woody / WD9F


Jim Sheldon
 

Hi Woody, 
I have mine set to 750 Fahrenheit on a mostly pointed tip with very slight rounding on the end.  Seems to handle just about everything but the really heavy jobs like PL259 shields and the like. For those, I use a larger diameter, “chisel style” tip and set the temp to 800 to 850 F.

Jim, W0EB


On Nov 21, 2020, at 2:11 PM, Woody Hester via groups.io <fghester@...> wrote:

Questions for experienced builders who have a soldering station that allows the temperature of the tip to be adjusted.

For normal kit building, what  temperature do you generally use? (Fahrenheit please).

Are there specific tasks during the build when you increase, or decrease the temperature?  If so, in just a few words, what are they?

How hard, or easy is it to damage certain components or even the board if too hot? ...and what is too hot?

If your answers are reasonably short and would be of interest to others answer on list.  Also feel free to "Elmer me" off list.  I recently burned through a trace on a board that wasn't visible.  It was a challenge to isolate and fix the problem.... so, I need to learn.  Thanks / Woody / WD9F


Jim, N5IB
 

Hi Woody,

I use a Weller EC1001 with a small conical tip for both SMD and for conventional thru hole PCBs.
Temp generally set at 700F, using 63/37 multicore rosin flux solder.
Heartily recommend the 63/37 eutectic alloy - lowest melting temp, and passes directly from liquid to solid with no "plastic" phase, so fewer bad joints.
For through-hole work I use 0,025" diameter solder, switching to 0.015" for SMD.

As someone else mentioned, stick to plain rosin flux - avoid "activated rosin" or even "mildly activated rosin"
And "no clean" is a whole 'nother can of worms, as is lead free.

When using rosin core solder a telltale sign of "too hot" is when the flux residue begins to darken to brown.

Kitmakers like 4SQRP almost always use 1 oz copper clad PC boards. Unless the traces are narrower than 0.015" they will survive that 700F iron temperature for the "one mississippi two mississippi" count. If you get past "three mississippi" you're starting to run risks of lifting pads. Whenever I design a PCB for kitting I try to use the largest pad diameters and trace widths I can reasonably get away with. Pads of 0.075" to 0.080" and traces of at least 0.020", with 0.030" or 0.040" when possible. Much less likelihood of lifting a pad or trace, even during rework.

A lot of consumer electronics uses 1/2 oz cladding and very thin traces and tiny pads. If trying to do repairs or mods it's best to reduce the temp to maybe 600 to 650, and try to get in and out in a hurry.

Bumping the temp to 750F generally helps when soldering wires to BNC center posts or to solder lugs on robust parts.

And a small tip and iron like mine is not much good for soldering shield braid to PL259 connectors, regardless of how hot I set it. Just not enough thermal mass to maintain temperature. Break out the monster Weller gun.

73, Keep melting solder!
Jim, N5IB


wa4dou@juno.com
 

Guys,
8 years as a Sonar technician in the Navy and 39 yrs as a land mobile radio technician before retirement. My choice is 800-825 deg F. That temp gets the job done at each joint quickly.

de Roy WA4DOU



____________________________________________________________
Sponsored by https://www.newser.com/?utm_source=part&utm_medium=uol&utm_campaign=rss_taglines_more

Cuomo Is Getting an Emmy &mdash; Governor Cuomo, That Is
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fb992d7b485412d73148st01vuc1
Conservatives Have a New Target&mdash;One of Their Own
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fb992d7d3bb912d73148st01vuc2
Trump Thought His Sister Had His Back&mdash; She Didn't
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fb992d7f30a112d73148st01vuc3


Mike D
 

I've always used 665F for lead, and 750F for other alloys.

Mike kd5rjz

On Sat, Nov 21, 2020, 4:21 PM wa4dou@... <wa4dou@...> wrote:
Guys,
8 years as a Sonar technician in the Navy and 39 yrs as a land mobile radio technician before retirement. My choice is 800-825 deg F. That temp gets the job done at each joint quickly.

de Roy WA4DOU



____________________________________________________________
Sponsored by https://www.newser.com/?utm_source=part&utm_medium=uol&utm_campaign=rss_taglines_more

Cuomo Is Getting an Emmy &mdash; Governor Cuomo, That Is
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fb992d7b485412d73148st01vuc1
Conservatives Have a New Target&mdash;One of Their Own
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fb992d7d3bb912d73148st01vuc2
Trump Thought His Sister Had His Back&mdash; She Didn't
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fb992d7f30a112d73148st01vuc3






 

I guess I am the outlier, I use 640-645 typically unless it's a large
ground pad or joint and then I'll run it up past 700. I like the lower
temperature as it doesn't burn the tip. But maybe that was the cheap
Radio Shack iron I had in the '80s that did that...

72, Nate

--

"The optimist proclaims that we live in the best of all
possible worlds. The pessimist fears this is true."

Web: https://www.n0nb.us
Projects: https://github.com/N0NB
GPG fingerprint: 82D6 4F6B 0E67 CD41 F689 BBA6 FB2C 5130 D55A 8819


John - KK4ITX
 

Probably all of the answers are correct.

I have found that soldering irons and their reported temperatures only at best estimate the tip temperature. While it’s true various solders melt at a specific temperature your iron may read hotter or cooler, so one needs to experiment with their own unit because one temperature reading might be the correct one but the actual temperature at the tip will probably be different..... so we need to apply the commonly accepted approach and heat the pad and lead a bit prior to applying the solder.  The objective is to surround the lead by flowing solder around it and into the hole leaving a shiny bump of solder behind.

I have found that the cleaning of both the board and the leads with alcohol (not Evan Williams) to remove the crap from the manufacturer is quite helpful in producing a good looking joint.

A too low temperature will actually overheat a component because everything has to then be heated to the melting point of whatever solder is used.  A higher temperature allows for extreme heat quickly at the point of contact between the tip and the joints and the heat dissipates before it gets to the component.  Sensitive components may require a heat sink between it and the point of soldering.

Practice is very educational and resistors by the hundreds are quite cheap, pick up some PCB project boards and play with your iron and components and make a mess..... in a short time you will know how “your” iron, solder and technique make a good looking soldering job, the temperature reading helps but only after you’ve identified all of the quirks of your equipment.  3 or 4 dollars in parts and solder plus an hour or so should do it.

By the way, there are “practice” boards for SMT parts also and those components are really cheap...... push yourself a little it’s much easier than you think.

Good luck,
John
KK4ITX 

Visit:  www.zaarc.org.   👁

On Nov 21, 2020, at 19:49, Nate Bargmann <n0nb@...> wrote:

I guess I am the outlier, I use 640-645 typically unless it's a large
ground pad or joint and then I'll run it up past 700.  I like the lower
temperature as it doesn't burn the tip.  But maybe that was the cheap
Radio Shack iron I had in the '80s that did that...

72, Nate

--

"The optimist proclaims that we live in the best of all
possible worlds.  The pessimist fears this is true."

Web: https://www.n0nb.us
Projects: https://github.com/N0NB
GPG fingerprint: 82D6 4F6B 0E67 CD41 F689 BBA6 FB2C 5130 D55A 8819







KM6KJE
 

try an infrared gun to check the temp tip of your gun

On Saturday, November 21, 2020, 06:42:32 PM PST, John - KK4ITX via groups.io <jleahy00@...> wrote:


Probably all of the answers are correct.

I have found that soldering irons and their reported temperatures only at best estimate the tip temperature. While it’s true various solders melt at a specific temperature your iron may read hotter or cooler, so one needs to experiment with their own unit because one temperature reading might be the correct one but the actual temperature at the tip will probably be different..... so we need to apply the commonly accepted approach and heat the pad and lead a bit prior to applying the solder.  The objective is to surround the lead by flowing solder around it and into the hole leaving a shiny bump of solder behind.

I have found that the cleaning of both the board and the leads with alcohol (not Evan Williams) to remove the crap from the manufacturer is quite helpful in producing a good looking joint.

A too low temperature will actually overheat a component because everything has to then be heated to the melting point of whatever solder is used.  A higher temperature allows for extreme heat quickly at the point of contact between the tip and the joints and the heat dissipates before it gets to the component.  Sensitive components may require a heat sink between it and the point of soldering.

Practice is very educational and resistors by the hundreds are quite cheap, pick up some PCB project boards and play with your iron and components and make a mess..... in a short time you will know how “your” iron, solder and technique make a good looking soldering job, the temperature reading helps but only after you’ve identified all of the quirks of your equipment.  3 or 4 dollars in parts and solder plus an hour or so should do it.

By the way, there are “practice” boards for SMT parts also and those components are really cheap...... push yourself a little it’s much easier than you think.

Good luck,
John
KK4ITX 

Visit:  www.zaarc.org.   👁

On Nov 21, 2020, at 19:49, Nate Bargmann <n0nb@...> wrote:

I guess I am the outlier, I use 640-645 typically unless it's a large
ground pad or joint and then I'll run it up past 700.  I like the lower
temperature as it doesn't burn the tip.  But maybe that was the cheap
Radio Shack iron I had in the '80s that did that...

72, Nate

--

"The optimist proclaims that we live in the best of all
possible worlds.  The pessimist fears this is true."

Web: https://www.n0nb.us
Projects: https://github.com/N0NB
GPG fingerprint: 82D6 4F6B 0E67 CD41 F689 BBA6 FB2C 5130 D55A 8819







Tommy Henderson
 

I use the Weller Tip"8" at 800F (that is about a 35W iron) and the Tip7 for 700F work (about a 28 to 30W Iron).  It depends on Tip length.  For surface mount using a 1.25" long tip, use the higher Temp, shorter tips for through hole as the 700 is closer to 750F with shorter tips.

Using a 20 to 25W iron ~ 650 may make you sleepy (on the amount of time spent holding the iron on the board to heat). 

Solders, I still use Sn 60/40 (close to 370F) or Eutectic 63/37. Have some 2%Ag for some work, and SN96-Ag3%-Cu1% or close to that which melts near 425F to ship outside US, Sn/Pb is preferred here.

Tommy - WD5AGO


wa4dou@juno.com
 

For those concerned about tip life, turning off
your iron when not in use and turning it down
when taking a break, leads to long tip life measured in years. While I'm thinking specifically about a Weller WTCPN, the same applies to all.

de Roy WA4DOU




____________________________________________________________
Sponsored by https://www.newser.com/?utm_source=part&utm_medium=uol&utm_campaign=rss_taglines_more

Experimental Treatment Given to Trump Wins Approval
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fba829078df22906b0bst04vuc1
Another Senator Tests Positive
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fba82909916d2906b0bst04vuc2
Judge Tosses Trump's Bid to Block Pa. Vote Certification
http://thirdpartyoffers.juno.com/TGL3131/5fba8290b8a552906b0bst04vuc3


Woody Hester
 

THANKS! to all for great info. in response to my soldering questions.  Here and off list.  ALL very helpful.  I am now waaay more knowledgable and inspired.  I'm grateful to all of you for your time and help! Headed down to the bench right now to mount some more components on my current project (50W Amp. for my QCX+).  Happy Thanksgiving to all!! / Woody / WD9F


Cliff Fox (KU4GW)
 

Hi Woody,
                  My el cheapo made in China soldering station I picked up at the 2013 Dayton Hamvention doesn't have a temperature scale, only one with colors so I'm not exactly sure of the temperature, but I run it turned clockwise to around what would be 5 pm on a clock face, maxium is at 6 pm. I also prefer the old 60/40 rosin core lead solder and there's always plenty to be had every year at the Shelby, NC Hamfest, well, up until this year because of it being cancelled due to covid-19. Just a tip for the method I use when soldering discrete non-SMT components I clamp a pair of hemostats on the component lead up close to where the lead enters into the component for a heat sink to prevent me accidentally damaging the component by overheating it with my soldering iron. I can barely see well enough anymore for SMT components due to sugar diabetes blurring my vision. I have overheated and lifted a foil trace from a PC board whentrying to desolder using the woven copper wick and sound up having to make a jumper from a tiny piece of hookup wire. After that I bought one of the desoldering irons that has the red rubber squeeze bulb alongside of the iron at a local Radio Shack store and it sorks fantastic! If you don't want to spend a lot on a rework station I highly recommend one of those desoldering irons. You can still find them on both eBay and Amazon. I hope you and yours have a very "Happy Thanksgiving" & a very " Merry Christmas" as well! Let's hope & pray we have a good 2021, beating 2020 sure won't be hard to do! 

Very 72/73 de Cliff 
KU4GW
Proud Member of the ARRL A-1 Operator Club (*Elected to Full Membership April 11, 2012
 
"It's not the class of license that the Amateur holds that matters, it's the class of the Amateur who holds the license!" 


WB9YZU
 

Woody, soldering is part art and part science, but like painting a car, the result is a matter of how well you prep the surface, keep your tools in good working order, and use the right tools. Lead heatsinks used to be a thing, especially when people used 15-25W single temp pencils for soldering, but most of what Hams run into now won't need them. Along with a Soldering Iron, a Tweezers,  small Hemostats, Dental Pick, and a set of small good quality dikes will be of help.

Once the board is prepped - I use IPA (Alcohol NOT the Beer!), 70-91% will work with the preference towards 91%. This can be obtained at your drug store.
Make sure your solder is either new or clean. I have some really old solder, and the surface oxidates. Wipe it with a rag with a bit of IPA on it to remove the oxidation or it will end up in your work. Speaking of solder, use the right size and type for what you want to do. Pb or Pb Free, and I prefer larger solder for PL259, and smaller solder for repairs and kits. I prefer a 60/40 Rosin core small diameter solder. If you want to use extra flux (and it is sometimes desirable) there are a number of brands of solder flux out there - they even make it in pen form. I'm still using the tin of Kesler stuff from 20 years ago (I should probably ditch it ;) ).

Iron choice - Don't even bother to buy a 25W iron. Seriously, just say No; don't even take one it someone gives it to you Free!
Because of the length of time it will take to heat, melt, an flow the solder, you will damage components and boards.
Like Paul mentioned, a 40-50W Pencil with adjustable temp will do most all kit building and rework. 
The Tip type depends on what you are using it for. Sometimes you may need a sharp tip, others a blade, and most generally a slightly blunt tip.
I can't stress enough the importance of keeping the tip clean and tinned! Whether you use the copper coil method or the damp sponge method is a matter of preference.

The actual soldering is the art, and it depends on what you are soldering.
For normal through board components, you apply the heat to the circuit pad, add solder to the pad until it flows onto the component, then add additional solder to create the fillet. If you have a dual sided board, you want to make sure it flows though to the other side. Don't dilly dally though, when the job is done, remove the heat and let it cool naturally. A 60/40 Pb solder fillet will be shinny when done right, Pb Free will look like a cold solder connection and there isn't any thing for it.

Connectors generally require more heat, and it depend what you are soldering. For example, for a PL259 male, a 125W Weller gun is often the appropriate tool, though if it is cold where I am working, I'm not apposed to pulling out the 250W Weller :) Again, timing is everything. Too long and you risk melting the insulation or the connector.

Soldering SMD is a horse of a different color.
It generally involves  1st tinning the pad with solder, placing the component on the pad, and reflowing the solder (ether with a pencil or a hot air tool) onto the component.
Your success with this method depends on prepwork and the size of the component. 
A Hot Air setup is useful for removing components and reinstalling them. They also work nicely to do heatshrink tubing :) Cheap ones are about $40 on Amazon.
This is a link to working with SMD components by KC9ON https://kc9on.com/ham-radio/smd/

Clean up - You want to board to look nice :)
I use IPA and a Q-Tip, for spot repairs. IPA and a tooth brush for larger items tends to get them clean.
FluxOff is a good product to use as a board wash.

Tons of informational material in YouTube videos!

GL!!

--
, Ron WB9YZU


Roy Parker
 

Actually it's more of a problem trying to use too cool of a temp. Strange, but it will heat the circuit more while trying to 'melt solder'.


On Sun, Nov 22, 2020 at 12:23 PM, WB9YZU via groups.io
<wb9yzu@...> wrote:
Woody, soldering is part art and part science, but like painting a car, the result is a matter of how well you prep the surface, keep your tools in good working order, and use the right tools. Lead heatsinks used to be a thing, especially when people used 15-25W single temp pencils for soldering, but most of what Hams run into now won't need them. Along with a Soldering Iron, a Tweezers,  small Hemostats, Dental Pick, and a set of small good quality dikes will be of help.

Once the board is prepped - I use IPA (Alcohol NOT the Beer!), 70-91% will work with the preference towards 91%. This can be obtained at your drug store.
Make sure your solder is either new or clean. I have some really old solder, and the surface oxidates. Wipe it with a rag with a bit of IPA on it to remove the oxidation or it will end up in your work. Speaking of solder, use the right size and type for what you want to do. Pb or Pb Free, and I prefer larger solder for PL259, and smaller solder for repairs and kits. I prefer a 60/40 Rosin core small diameter solder. If you want to use extra flux (and it is sometimes desirable) there are a number of brands of solder flux out there - they even make it in pen form. I'm still using the tin of Kesler stuff from 20 years ago (I should probably ditch it ;) ).

Iron choice - Don't even bother to buy a 25W iron. Seriously, just say No; don't even take one it someone gives it to you Free!
Because of the length of time it will take to heat, melt, an flow the solder, you will damage components and boards.
Like Paul mentioned, a 40-50W Pencil with adjustable temp will do most all kit building and rework. 
The Tip type depends on what you are using it for. Sometimes you may need a sharp tip, others a blade, and most generally a slightly blunt tip.
I can't stress enough the importance of keeping the tip clean and tinned! Whether you use the copper coil method or the damp sponge method is a matter of preference.

The actual soldering is the art, and it depends on what you are soldering.
For normal through board components, you apply the heat to the circuit pad, add solder to the pad until it flows onto the component, then add additional solder to create the fillet. If you have a dual sided board, you want to make sure it flows though to the other side. Don't dilly dally though, when the job is done, remove the heat and let it cool naturally. A 60/40 Pb solder fillet will be shinny when done right, Pb Free will look like a cold solder connection and there isn't any thing for it.

Connectors generally require more heat, and it depend what you are soldering. For example, for a PL259 male, a 125W Weller gun is often the appropriate tool, though if it is cold where I am working, I'm not apposed to pulling out the 250W Weller :) Again, timing is everything. Too long and you risk melting the insulation or the connector.

Soldering SMD is a horse of a different color.
It generally involves  1st tinning the pad with solder, placing the component on the pad, and reflowing the solder (ether with a pencil or a hot air tool) onto the component.
Your success with this method depends on prepwork and the size of the component. 
A Hot Air setup is useful for removing components and reinstalling them. They also work nicely to do heatshrink tubing :) Cheap ones are about $40 on Amazon.
This is a link to working with SMD components by KC9ON https://kc9on.com/ham-radio/smd/

Clean up - You want to board to look nice :)
I use IPA and a Q-Tip, for spot repairs. IPA and a tooth brush for larger items tends to get them clean.
FluxOff is a good product to use as a board wash.

Tons of informational material in YouTube videos!

GL!!

--
, Ron WB9YZU


Jerome Wysocki
 

I remember an old trick reported in Popular Electronics in the earlier 1960s. The author would wrap some 14 gauge bare copper wire closely and tightly around the outside porcelain part of of the heating element of a soldering iron. He claimed the copper acted like a heat sink, to remove excess heat from the outside shell of the heating element, claiming that this will drastically increase the life of the heating element. Now that I am starting to do a lot more soldering than I have in recent years, I think I'll try it. It can't hurt.


Paul Goemans
 

Well,
Interesting concept. That was 50 years ago. A modern temperature controlled solder pencil will just crank more power into the heating element to maintain temperature. So you won’t gain any element life, and in fact be shortening its life!

WA9PWP



Sent from Pauls iPhone

On Nov 22, 2020, at 10:03 PM, Jerome Wysocki <jeromewysocki48@gmail.com> wrote:

I remember an old trick reported in Popular Electronics in the earlier 1960s. The author would wrap some 14 gauge bare copper wire closely and tightly around the outside porcelain part of of the heating element of a soldering iron. He claimed the copper acted like a heat sink, to remove excess heat from the outside shell of the heating element, claiming that this will drastically increase the life of the heating element. Now that I am starting to do a lot more soldering than I have in recent years, I think I'll try it. It can't hurt.





WB9YZU
 

I would bet there was volumes of scientific evidence to support that claim ;)
What it would do is increase the mass the element would need to heat. I'm not sure about the premature failure, but it would take longer to come up to temp, and longer to cool down.

Solder tips were the high volume items, not the heating element.
They were simple copper or steel tips with little or no cladding; they would be eaten away pretty quickly.

On my old Weller guns, I don't even bother to buy tips anymore, I just strip a piece of left over #12 Solid. They seem to last as long ;)

The controlled 40W Station is still using the same tip it had when I got it 15 years ago.
--
, Ron WB9YZU


Cliff Fox (KU4GW)
 

Those were some great soldering tips Ron! Thanks! I wanted to tell you about a tip cleaner I discovered that works great. I saw the stuff they sell on Amazon that has steel wool in a snap closed container. Well, my 79 year old mom uses these things for scrubbing pots and dishes called Scotchbrite Stainless Steel Scrubbing Pads that are made from coarsely shredded stainless steel.  I took one of them and stuffed it down inside a small jelly jar and it works great for cleaning the tip on my iron. Just push it into it over and over 2-3 times and the tip looks like brand new!

Very 72/73 de Cliff KU4GW
Proud Member of the ARRL A-1 Operator Club (*Elected to Full Membership April 11, 2012
4SQRP # 536
SKCC # 652C
100WAAW # 1358
FELD HELL # 0062
NAQCC # 1491
FISTS # 16001
30CW # 30CW127
QRP ARCI # 15877
QRP ZOMBIE # 867
SOC # 952
A1 CW Club # 3440
 
"It's not the class of license that the Amateur holds that matters, it's the class of the Amateur who holds the license!"